M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

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CoyoteStarfish
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Location: Miami, FL

M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by CoyoteStarfish »

OVERVIEW:
Injection pump timing on a M21 is controlled by a solenoid operated pulse valve inside the injection pump which varies the pressure applied to the pump distribution (advance) piston. The VP-20 control module monitors signals from a coolant temperature sensor, engine speed and TDC sensors, and the lift sensor located in the #4 fuel injector (needle lift sensor.) The VP-20 computes ideal injection pump timing based upon sensor signals and controls operation of the pulse valve accordingly.

The pulse valve varies advance piston pressure by providing an additional pressure bleed when it is open. The control module cycles the solenoid on and off a fixed number of times per second, varying the amount of "on'' time during each cycle in order to control the pressure bleed orifice. When advance piston pressure is reduced, injection timing is retarded; when pressure is increased, timing is advanced. Action of the pulse valve only controls piston pressure, and does not affect the amount of fuel injected.

If you do not happen to have flywheel/injection pump locking pins:
The flywheel can be pinned with a 5/16" drill bit (non-cutting side into the flywheel) to lock the crank at #1 TDC. The "O / T" mark on the harmonic balancer confirms #1 TDC because it lines up with the notch on the upper timing belt cover.
The injection pump cog can be pinned with a 3/8" drill bit through the lower pinning hole in the cog (~7 o'clock) and into the hole in the IP mounting bracket.

STATIC INJECTION PUMP TIMING:

This writeup assumes that your flywheel, camshaft and flywheel are synchronized. If you suspect that they might not be synchronized;
With timing cover removed, rotate the crankshaft toward TDC while pressing flywheel locking pin into bore (Figure 3). With crankshaft pin in place, insert the injection pump locking pin into the injection pump cog. The pin should freely pass through the cog into a recess in the injection pump mounting plate. This ensures that both the crankshaft and injection pump are synchronized. If not synchronized on new belt installation, reinstall timing belt with camshaft locked (special tool required), crankshaft and injection pump cog pinned.
If not synchronized on used timing belt, replace timing belt and tensioner and follow the above steps.
Camshaft/valve timing are not covered in this section.

Ensure that coolant temperature is greater than 68°F, and that injection pump lever is resting against idle stop (Figure 1) and not in the cold running position.
Image
Remove expansion tank mounting screws, position tank aside and plug overflow hose, then remove support for air collector.
Remove distributor piston plug from injection pump and install dial indicator and adapter 13-5-330 or equivalent (Figure 2). Tighten adapter by hand and clamp indicator with slight preload.
Image
Remove fan shroud and cooling fan. Fan retainers have lefthand threads. (optional?)
Rotate crankshaft two full rotations clockwise until dial indicator records highest value, then zero dial indicator.
Continue rotating crankshaft toward TDC while pressing flywheel locking pin into bore (Figure 3). Note dial indicator reading when pin engages hole in flywheel.
Image
Indicator reading should be .0256-.0272 inch (.65-.69 mm). Optional for performance: Stock IP, 0.70-0.80mm. 12mm Cam disk, 0.90-1.2mm. Biodiesel/WVO, [to be added]

If indicator reading is not as specified, adjust pump timing as follows:
Remove pump wiring from retaining clips, then loosen 3 pump to bracket mounting bolts.
Loosen 2 pump flange mounting nuts just enough to allow pump to be rotated, then adjust pump to obtain specified dial indicator reading. Ensure that gauge pin is properly engaged in hole in flywheel when adjusting pump timing. Rotating pump toward engine advances injection timing.
When specified indicator reading is obtained, torque flange mounting nuts, then the bracket mounting bolts to 16 ft. lbs.
Remove gauge pin, rotate engine 2 complete revolutions and install locking pin, then check static timing adjustment and correct as needed.
Install new seal on distributor piston plug and torque plug to 14-22 ft. lbs., then install remaining components.

[Thanks: Frybrid, DieseiBoost]
Last edited by CoyoteStarfish on May 13, 2011 5:51 AM, edited 2 times in total.
Frybrid 524td
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Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing (sticky?)

Post by Frybrid 524td »

CoyoteStarfish wrote:Drill bits (can't remember the sizes) may be substituted for timing pins if not available.
-The flywheel can be pinned with a 5/16" drill bit (non-cutting side into the flywheel) to lock the crank at #1 TDC. The "O / T" mark on the harmonic balancer confirms #1 TDC because it lines up with the notch on the upper timing belt cover.
-The injection pump cog can be pinned with a 3/8" drill bit through the lower pinning hole in the cog (~7 o'clock) and into the hole in the IP mounting bracket. This drill bit size seems to fit much more snuggly than the usually recommended 11/32" bit.

That said, the proper timing pins fit much better and prevent any rotation. The hole in the flywheel is smaller than the access hole in the block (below starter next to tach sensor) so the 5/16" drill bit engages the flywheel but not the access hole in the block. This allows for some movement before the drill bit contacts the block. The factory pin is stepped so that is fits fully into the flywheel and the block, preventing all rotation. The IP pin fits much more snugly as well.
DieselBoost
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Post by DieselBoost »

i recommend with stock ip usage of about 0.70-0.80mm timing
with 12mm rotorhead 0.90-1.2mm timing
CoyoteStarfish
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Post by CoyoteStarfish »

How about specific timing for biodiesel/WVO?
CoyoteStarfish
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Joined: Nov 14, 2008 7:06 PM
Location: Miami, FL

Post by CoyoteStarfish »

From my research it says that anything up-to 5 degrees advanced over optimal for regular diesel fuel is great for biodiesel and WVO. How does that translate to the dial timing method?
Frybrid 524td
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Post by Frybrid 524td »

CoyoteStarfish wrote:From my research it says that anything up-to 5 degrees advanced over optimal for regular diesel fuel is great for biodiesel and WVO.
That's what I have read as well but I haven't found any hard facts regarding the question. It always seems to be anecdotal evidence. "I'm running WVO and my engine runs so much better with Xº of timing advance!" It makes sense that more advanced timing should help with more complete combustion of higher viscosity fuels, but what is the "magic number?" I've read of some people with PSDs and VW TDIs attempting to create on-the-fly adjustable tunes to change timing advance for whatever fuel type is being used, e.g. WVO versus D2.
wickahead
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Post by wickahead »

Hey Beamters, would you please make this a "sticky"?

Thanks,

//Mark
Frybrid 524td
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Post by Frybrid 524td »

wickahead wrote:Hey Beamters, would you please make this a "sticky"?

Thanks,

//Mark
The beamters don't patrol this part of the site very often. You're better off PMing one of them and they will consider it for a sticky.
BradM
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Joined: Feb 07, 2011 1:49 PM
Location: Alberta Canada

Post by BradM »

So my car was set to something like .018 of a inch. Is there a different spec for the euro?
einstein57
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Post by einstein57 »

Will this indicator work for me? Can anyone suggest which one to get and where to buy? Loaner?

http://www.ebay.com/itm/VW-Diesel-Injec ... 2a&vxp=mtr
gadget73
Posts: 601
Joined: Nov 22, 2017 11:30 PM
Location: New Jersey

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by gadget73 »

Pardon the stupid question, but would someone who knows something about diesel engines be able to explain what happens when you adjust the pump for a higher reading on the indicator? Does this advance the timing? What does that do for the engine in terms of performance, economy, smoke output, etc? I won't be upset about a little extra perk from a stock engine but if it causes damage, makes it smoke a lot, or eats fuel I'll leave it at stock settings.
gadget73
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Location: New Jersey

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by gadget73 »

Just in case its of use to anyone, data from the Ford service manuals

49 state / VE pump model:
0.30" (0.76 mm) when the belt has less than 10k miles,
0.0291 (0.74 mm) when belt has >10k
California / VP-20 pump model (US BMW uses this one)
0.0256" +/- 0.0015" (0.65mm +/- 0.04mm) when belt has less than 10k
0.0248 +/- 0.0015" (0.63mm +/- .04mm) when greater than 10k


The spec for the non-electronic pump is only mentioned as a passing note in one manual, took me a good while to find it.
kingoftarmace2004
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Location: Fall River Mills

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by kingoftarmace2004 »

for all doing this "Rotate crankshaft two full rotations clockwise until dial indicator records highest value, then zero dial indicator. " is waaaay wrong. your suppose to zero out at the LOWEST value. ask me how I know! -Paul
gadget73
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Location: New Jersey

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by gadget73 »

never noticed it said that. The procedure in the Ford book says to zero at lowest reading. Makes sense, if the goal is to measure plunger travel you have to start when the thing is bottomed out. If it was done from when the plunger was topped out, the setting would be in negative numbers, not positive.
kingoftarmace2004
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Location: Fall River Mills

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by kingoftarmace2004 »

exactly. and made my car crank before starting real long, run like garbage. whith alot of white eye burning fog and sound like a fuel cut off/rev limiter at 2 grand. made me really nervous after all that work untill I looked over my timing notes. and rechecked it. I set it at 0.75mm and it seems to like it there so far. starts quick. idles nice and revs smooth. -Paul
gadget73
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Location: New Jersey

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by gadget73 »

It is kind of cool how quick these things start when things are right. Mine lights right off, even when its not very warm out. It does stumble and run rough for a few seconds when its really cold out but it settles out pretty quickly. I can also hear when the advance solenoid turns off, the clattery diesel sound gets much quieter. Definitely doesn't sound like an American diesel engine, no giant dildo that grinds rocks noises.
kingoftarmace2004
Posts: 128
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Location: Fall River Mills

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by kingoftarmace2004 »

hahaha! giant dildo! so your calling my 1999 f350 dually and my 2003 duramax and giant dildo?
gadget73
Posts: 601
Joined: Nov 22, 2017 11:30 PM
Location: New Jersey

Re: M21 Static Injection Pump Timing

Post by gadget73 »

The Cummins engines are more dildo sounding, but 7.3 Powersmokes definitely have the rock grinder sound down pat. The IDI was worse though.
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